Types of Operating System in Computer 2023 Updated

Types of Operating SystemTypes of Operating System

Types of Operating System

In this article you will know the types of operating system – Types of Operating System in Hindi. But before that, let’s understand what the operating system is in two lines. Operating System (OS) is a type of software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides basic services for a computer program.

The OS acts as an interface between our end user and computer. Therefore, to run any program in the computer, it must have at least one operating system. It helps the user to communicate with the computer. Without OS, it is not possible for the user to use any computer or mobile device.

Table of contents

Types of Operating System

Main Types of Operating System –

  1. Batch OS
  2. Multiprogramming OS
  3. Multitasking OS
  4. Distributed OS
  5. Network OS
  6. Real Time OS
  7. Time Sharing OS
  8. Multiprocessing OS

Batch Operating System

The first operating system used in second generation computers was the batch operating system. In this type of OS, there was no direct interaction between the end user and the computer. In order to process any input data in the computer, the user had to prepare it in the job form. Here job means, from the program to input data and all the control instructions which have already been written and prepared as a bundle. After this, the user would input that job into the punchcard. At that time punchcard was used as an input device.

There was an operator to process the job in computer, which would convert all similar jobs (which need to be the same or written in a language like photron, cobol etc.) into a batch. In the same way, I used to create a separate batch of other jobs with similar needs and input those batches into the system (CPU). The system used to take one job at a time from that batch and then after processing it would process another job of the batch and execute the same after processing the remaining jobs. This process is called spooling. After the system executed all the jobs, we used to provide the output.

Advantage of Batch Operating System:

  • By reducing the same job in a batch, the job setup time for the operator was reduced considerably.
  • More than one user can share the batch system.
  • The idle time of the CPU was also reduced significantly using the automatic job sequencing technique.

Disadvantage of Batch Operating System:

  • Once the job was inputted, the user did not have any interaction with it.
  • When the process has to wait for I / O or any other event, C.P.U idle at that time. Due to which process execution takes longer.
  • When the processing of a job has failed, the rest of the job of the batch had to wait for unknown time.

Multiprogramming system

If more than one process or program is kept in main memory to execute, then it is called Multiprogramming. Whenever a process runs in the computer, it also requires I / O time in addition to CPU time, and when the process does I / O or some other event, in which there is no need for CPU, the CPU will sit idle. Instead takes a context switch and starts running another process lying in main memory. By doing this, the CPU is never idle and the rest of the process does not have to wait for execution.

Advantage of Multiprogramming Operating System:

  • CPU is used more.
  • Other programs in memory do not have to wait for processing and response time is also reduced.
  • It is very useful for today’s technology.

Disadvantage of Multiprogramming Operating System:

  • Processing more programs makes their scheduling difficult.

It becomes necessary to manage main memory.

  • Problems such as memory fragmentation arise.

Multitasking Operating System

Multitasking is a concept of multiprogramming in a way, but with this, time sharing is also present in it. In multitasking operating system each process is executed for a fixed time period. After that C.P.U starts executing another process lying in main memory. In this way, he keeps executing all the processes after a certain time period. The switching of the CPU is so fast, that the user falls victim to illusion. He feels that all the process is going on simultaneously. But this cannot happen because CPU can run only one process at a time. Now because the processor is so powerful, it handles all the processes simultaneously. This fixed time period is called time quantum. This operating system is also called time sharing operating system.

Advantage of Multitasking Operating System:

  • This makes the response time much better.
  • All process gets equal opportunity.
  • Multiple processes are executed simultaneously.

Distributed System

When many computers interconnect through a network and share tasks with each other, it is called distributed system. These operating systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Processors communicate using different types of communication lines (e.g. high-speed buses or telephone lines). All the resources except CPU and memory are shared between these computers. That is why this operating system is also called loosely coupled system. Processors are referred to here as sites, nodes or computers etc.

There are two types of distributed OS:

  1. Client Server System
  2. Pier-to-Pier System

Advantage of Distributed Operating System:

  • Users can easily share resources among themselves.
  • Distributed system allows that we can distribute computation between different sites to run a computation concurrently.
  • If a node gets more work, the distributed system shares that load to other nodes of the network.

Disadvantage of Distributed Operating System:

  • If the main network fails, it breaks the communication of all computers.
  • This type of operating system is not easily available, as they are quite expensive.
  • Their underlying software is highly complex and they are not yet well understood.

Network Operating System

These operating systems have a server to which many other client computers are connected. Network operating system provides this central server with the ability to manage the data, security, application and other networking functions of all other client computers. Through these OS, a small private network allows shared access to files, printers, security, applications and other other networking functions to the rest of the computers connected to its network. Apart from this, client computers are also well aware of the underlying configuration of other computers connected to the network and their individual connection etc. That is why it is also known as tightly coupled system.

Advantage of Network Operating System:

  • We can handle other computers from a single central server. That is, our server is highly stable centralized.
  • The security of all computers can be controlled through a central server.
  • New technologies, software and hardware in computers can be easily updated or changed.

Disadvantage of Network Operating System:

  • Their servers are very expensive.
  • The user has to depend on the central server.
  • The central server needs to be maintained and updated daily.

Real Time Operating System

The response time of C.P.U is very important in these operating systems. These types of OS work in real-time. That is, the time required to process the input and respond is very less. This time interval is called the reaction time. These real-time operating systems are used when the importance of time is very high. For example missile system where the missile has to be launched at a certain time.

There are two types of real-time operating systems:

Hard Real-Time OS – These OS are used in applications where time is very strict or even a slight delay in responding should not be accepted. They are mostly used for critical operations. In hard real-time systems, secondary storage is very limited or missing and data is stored in ROM. Virtual memory is not found in these systems.

Soft Real-Time OS – They are less restrictive than hard real-time. A slight delay in response time can be accepted.

Advantage of Real-Time Operating System:

  • Maximum use of device and system.
  • In this type of system, memory allocation is better managed.
  • RTOS is also used in embedded systems such as transport due to its low program size.

Disadvantage of Real-Time Operating System:

  • Very few tasks can be run at a time.
  • Sometimes system resources are not so good and they are also expensive.
  • Their algorithm is quite complicated and difficult for a designer to understand.

Time Sharing Operating System

A time sharing operating system in which each process is given a fixed time to execute. Suppose there are many user connect from one system, then each user will share time among themselves to use C.P.U. If the time for one user to use the CPU is two seconds, then the system will be available to the other user after two seconds. Like this, it will move towards other user. This way the user will be able to use the CPU without waiting. These operating systems are also called multitasking OS.

Advantage of Time Sharing Operating System:

  • All process gets specific time to execute.
  • Task switching time is very short, due to which other tasks have to wait less time.
  • If the process of a task is completed, then the scheduled time between the other tasks increases.
  • goes.

Disadvantage of Time Sharing Operating System:

  • consumes more resources, hence it requires special operating system.
  • Task switching sometimes gets complicated, because there are so many users and applications running that can hang the system.
  • High specification of hardware is required.

Multiprocessing system

Most computer systems use only one processor ie CPU. But multiple processors are used in multiprocessing operating systems. These systems have many processors working in parallel, which are computer clock, memory, bus, peripheral devices etc. Let’s share That is to say, the number of hardware remaining in the computer is only one, just the number of C.P.U is given. By doing this, we are able to execute more than one process at a time in the computer.

There are two types of multiprocessing systems:

Symmetric Multiprocessors – In this type of system each processor has an identical copy of the operating system. These processors can communicate with each other and they have the right to execute any process. That is to say, all C.P.Us act as peers and all have equal rights.

Asymmetric Multiprocessors – Processors available in this system are given different tasks. It has a master processor, which instructs the rest of the CPU. It is also called the master slave architecture system. For example, a processor will function as an application program and a CPU will handle the I / O device in a similar way that the rest of the processors will be focused on other processes.

Advantage of Multiprocessing Operating System:

  • When many C.P.Us work together, system throughput increases. That is, the number of processes executed per unit time increases.
  • System reliability increases. That is, even if a processor fails, the system will not shut down. This ability to continue working despite hardware failure is known as graceful degradation.
  • Can run more than one process at a time. This is called true parallel processing.

Disadvantage of Multiprocessing Operating System:

  • Resources eg memory, peripheral etc. of computer systems by multiple processors. Scheduling processes becomes complicated due to sharing.
  • They cost more. However the multiprocessor system is cheaper than using many computer systems.
  • In multiprocessor systems all C.P.Us share memory of the system, hence we need large main memory.


In this post you learned the types of operating systems – Types of Operating System in Hindi. Hopefully, this may have helped you in understanding the basic concept of all OSs and their functions. If you have any question or suggestion related to this, please let us know in the comment below. If you want, you can also share this post with your classmates.

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